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Gram-negative bacterial endocarditis in adults: State-of-the-heart

from Medscape Medical News

Gram-negative endocarditis due to HACEK bacteria (Haemophilus species, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella and Kingella species) and non-HACEK organisms is an infrequent occurrence but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Traditionally, non-HACEK Gram-negative endocarditis has been associated with injection drug use. However, emerging data from more contemporary cohorts suggest changing epidemiology and risk factors for Gram-negative endocarditis, necessitating an updated review of this subject. Moreover, optimal management, including the need for surgical intervention and strategies for the prevention of Gram-negative endocarditic need to be revisited. more


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