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3 massive volcanic eruptions light up Jupiter's moon Io
Jupiter's moon Io is the most volcanically active body in our solar system, so it's not a shock that astronomers captured several eruptions while their telescopes were trained on the satellite. However, the three eruptions were uncommonly massive and occurred within the span of a couple of weeks — eruptions of this class are only thought to occur every other year, on average. Researchers may be able to glean enough from these images to help us get to the bottom of a couple of Ionian mysteries.
ELEMENTS: Unconventional Hydrocarbons
The August issue of Elements magazine (volume 10, issue 4) is in press. Unconventional hydrocarbons, such as gas and oil shale, oil sands, and heavy oil, can now be exploited more effectively and economically. This has stimulated exploration and exploitation on a global scale and has led to a new economic and environmental landscape in energy matters. Exploiting unconventional hydrocarbons requires additional technology, energy, and capital compared to the industry standard. In this thematic issue, Guest editors David Cole and Michael Arthur address the geologic and geochemical nature of these resources and their impact on global socioeconomics and the environment.
Current Geochemical Society members can access this issue now via the Elements online archive using your email address (UserID) and member number (Password).
Geochemical Career Center
New! Postdoctoral Researcher in Microbial Geochemistry (Duke University, Durham, NC, USA)
New! Postdoctoral Fellowship Positions in Geochemistry, Cosmochemistry, and Astrobiology (Carnegie Institution, Washington, DC, USA)
Professor (W3) for Petrology (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany)
Associate Environmental Geoscientist (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL, USA)
Senior Staff Associate (Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University of Columbia University, Palisades, NY, USA)
Lectureship in Earth Sciences (University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, UK)
Faculty Position in Geology (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA)
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Please visit us at GSA 2014 in Vancouver, Booth 1018.
New in GCA (v.140, 1 September 2014)
Cosmogenic 180W variations in meteorites and re-assessment of a possible 184Os–180W decay system
Rare earth elements and neodymium isotopes in sedimentary organic matter
[open access] Kinetics of ikaite precipitation and dissolution in seawater-derived brines at sub-zero temperatures to 265 K
Cadmium isotope fractionation during adsorption to Mn oxyhydroxide at low and high ionic strength
A young solidification age for the lunar magma ocean
Carbonate clumped isotope constraints on Silurian ocean temperature and seawater δ18O
Investigation of schreibersite and intrinsic oxidation products from Sikhote-Alin, Seymchan, and Odessa meteorites and Fe3P and Fe2NiP synthetic surrogates
Organic matter compositions and loadings in soils and sediments along the Fly River, Papua New Guinea
Determining cooling rates of iron and stony-iron meteorites from measurements of Ni and Co at kamacite–taenite interfaces
NanoSIMS analyses of apatite and melt inclusions in the GRV 020090 Martian meteorite: Hydrogen isotope evidence for recent past underground hydrothermal activity on Mars
New in G-Cubed (v.15, issue 6)
On the magmatic record of the Makran arc, southeastern Iran: Insights from zircon U-Pb geochronology and bulk-rock geochemistry
Hydrocarbon seepage and its sources at mud volcanoes of the Kumano forearc basin, Nankai Trough subduction zone
The capacity of hydrous fluids to transport and fractionate incompatible elements and metals within the Earth's mantle
Geochemical insights into the internal dynamics of debris avalanches. A case study: The Socompa avalanche, Chile
Ta'u and Ofu/Olosega volcanoes: The "Twin Sisters" of Samoa, their P, T, X melting regime, and global implications
Clay Mineral Society launches e-Newsletter and Listserve
The Clay Minerals Society is pleased to announce the release of their new CMS E-newsletter. Click the link to subscribe for free. Additionally, The Clay-Talk list is a forum created by members of The Clay Minerals Society to discuss topics of interest in the general areas of clay and clay-sized minerals. It is open to both members and non-members.
Water's reaction with metal oxides opens doors for researchers
University of Wisconsin-Madison
A multi-institutional team has resolved a long-unanswered question about how two of the world's most common substances interact.
In a paper published recently in Nature Communications, Manos Mavrikakis, professor of chemical and biological engineering at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and his collaborators report fundamental discoveries about how water reacts with metal oxides. The paper opens doors for greater understanding and control of chemical reactions in fields ranging from catalysis to geochemistry and atmospheric chemistry.
How to predict brown carbon's effect on climate
Researchers have uncovered key attributes of "brown carbon," the particles from partially burned wood, that play an important role in warming the atmosphere.
"We found order in the chaos," says Rawad Saleh, a postdoctoral researcher at Carnegie Mellon University and lead author of the study. "Now we have this framework that unifies the seemingly discordant results reported by various research groups: The warming effect of brown carbon depends on the conditions under which it is produced."
7 tiny grains captured by Stardust likely visitors from interstellar space
University of California, Berkeley
Since 2006, when NASA's Stardust spacecraft delivered its aerogel and aluminum foil dust collectors back to Earth, a team of scientists has combed through the collectors in search of rare, microscopic particles of interstellar dust.
The team now reports that they have found seven dust motes that probably came from outside our solar system, perhaps created in a supernova explosion millions of years ago and altered by eons of exposure to the extremes of space. They would be the first confirmed samples of contemporary interstellar dust.
Climate conundrum: Conflicting indicators on what preceded human-driven warming
University of Wisconsin-Madison
When the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change recently requested a figure on global temperature trends for its annual report, some scientists knew that was going to be a problem. They describe a consistent global warming trend over the course of the Holocene counter to a study published in 2013.
A simple mineral has geochemical power that helps spark life
A research team in Arizona has found that common zinc ore may have a key role as a catalyst in the complex chain that must have led to the start of life on Earth. Their new paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science shows that the widespread mineral sphalerite acts as an unexpected catalyst with organic matter, adding a new power tool to the workshop that gave rise to life.
Missed last week's issue? See which articles your colleagues read most.
Geochemical Society Content Editors: James Brenan, Li-Hung Lin,
Lesley Warren, and Helen Williams
Colby Horton, Vice President of Publishing, 469.420.2601
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