How to measure English learners' development more accurately
The ancient Greek philosopher Heraclitus famously posited that it is impossible to step into the same river twice. That is, by the time you go back for the second dip, the water you touched the first time is long downstream. This makes it challenging to get clear understanding of the river: is it full of fish? What's its temperature? Etc. Each splash into the water is simply one slice of time. To get more complete knowledge, you'd need to measure it over a longer period of time. This is as good an analogy as any for illustrating the challenges of responsibly assessing language learners.
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