A theorem of target point for ground reaction force in a planar serial-linked walking limb
from Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
One of important energy expenses in legged locomotion of both animals and robots is the mechanical antagonism between actuators/muscles, which is the positive mechanical work of some muscles opposed by the simultaneous negative work of the others. One known way to minimize the mechanical antagonism is the proper employment of redundant degrees of freedom of the limb.
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