Noninvasive approaches for anxiety reduction during interventional radiology procedures
from Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Periprocedural anxiety is a major cause of morbidity, particularly for interventional radiology procedures that often depend on conscious sedation. Management of anxiety and pain during image-guided procedures has traditionally relied on pharmacologic agents such as benzodiazepines and opioids. Although generally safe, use of these medications risks adverse events, and newer noninvasive, nonpharmacologic techniques have evolved to address patient needs.
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